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Normalize CSS

Normalize.css adalah file CSS kecil yang menyediakan konsistensi yang lebih baik untuk style default dari elemen HTML untuk masalah cross-browser. Ini lebih modern, mendukung HTML5, sebuah alternative untuk CSS reset traditional.

Normalize.css saat ini digunakan oleh Twitter Bootstrap, HTML5 Boilerplate, GOV.UK, Rdio, CSS Tricks, framework, toolkit, dan banyak website.

Normalize.css adalah sebuah alternative untuk mereset CSS. Proyek ini adalah produk dari 100 jam penelitian yang luas oleh necolas dan jon_neal tentang perbedaan style default browser.

Tujuan dari normalize.css adalah sebagai berikut :

  • Membuat default browser.
  • Menormalkan style dari berbagai elemen HTML.
  • Memperbaiki bug dan ketidak konsistensian browser yang umum.
  • Menjelaskan kode menggunakan komentar dan dokumentasi yang terinci.

Mendukung berbagai browser (termasuk browser mobile) dan termasuk menormalkan elemen HTML5, typography, list, embedded content, form, dan table.

Normalize vs Reset

Ini perlu pemahaman secara lebih rinci bagaimana normalize.css berbeda dari reset CSS tradisional.

Normalize.css Membuat default browser.

Me reset adalah memaksakan style secara visual merata untuk hampir semua elemen. Sebaliknya, normalize.css mempertahankan style default browser. Ini maksudnya Anda tidak perlu mendeklarasikan ulang style untuk semua elemen typografi yang umum.

Jika default style sebuah elemen berbeda di browser yang berbeda, normalize.css bertujuan untuk membuat style yang konsisten dan sesuai dengan standar yang lebih modern jika dimungkinkan.

Memperbaiki bug dan ketidak konsistensian browser yang umum.

Ini memperbaiki bug di desktop browser yang umum dan mobile browser yang diluar dari ruang lingkup untuk di reset. Ini termasuk pengaturan tampilan untuk elemen HTML5, mengoreksi font-size untuk preformatted text, SVG overflow di IE9, dan banyak lagi bug di across browser dan operating system.

Sebagai contoh, ini menunjukkan bagaimana normalize.css membuat input type search HTML5 cross-browser konsisten dan stylable:

/**
 * 1. Addresses appearance set to searchfield in S5, Chrome
 * 2. Addresses box-sizing set to border-box in S5, Chrome (include -moz to future-proof)
 */

input[type="search"] {
  -webkit-appearance: textfield; /* 1 */
  -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
  -webkit-box-sizing: content-box; /* 2 */
  box-sizing: content-box;
}

/**
 * Removes inner padding and search cancel button in S5, Chrome on OS X
 */

input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration,
input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-cancel-button {
  -webkit-appearance: none;
}

Download normalize.css

/*! normalize.css v3.0.2 | MIT License | git.io/normalize */

/**
 * 1. Set default font family to sans-serif.
 * 2. Prevent iOS text size adjust after orientation change, without disabling
 *    user zoom.
 */

html {
  font-family: sans-serif; /* 1 */
  -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
  -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Remove default margin.
 */

body {
  margin: 0;
}

/* HTML5 display definitions
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Correct `block` display not defined for any HTML5 element in IE 8/9.
 * Correct `block` display not defined for `details` or `summary` in IE 10/11
 * and Firefox.
 * Correct `block` display not defined for `main` in IE 11.
 */

article,
aside,
details,
figcaption,
figure,
footer,
header,
hgroup,
main,
menu,
nav,
section,
summary {
  display: block;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct `inline-block` display not defined in IE 8/9.
 * 2. Normalize vertical alignment of `progress` in Chrome, Firefox, and Opera.
 */

audio,
canvas,
progress,
video {
  display: inline-block; /* 1 */
  vertical-align: baseline; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Prevent modern browsers from displaying `audio` without controls.
 * Remove excess height in iOS 5 devices.
 */

audio:not([controls]) {
  display: none;
  height: 0;
}

/**
 * Address `[hidden]` styling not present in IE 8/9/10.
 * Hide the `template` element in IE 8/9/11, Safari, and Firefox < 22.
 */

[hidden],
template {
  display: none;
}

/* Links
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove the gray background color from active links in IE 10.
 */

a {
  background-color: transparent;
}

/**
 * Improve readability when focused and also mouse hovered in all browsers.
 */

a:active,
a:hover {
  outline: 0;
}

/* Text-level semantics
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Address styling not present in IE 8/9/10/11, Safari, and Chrome.
 */

abbr[title] {
  border-bottom: 1px dotted;
}

/**
 * Address style set to `bolder` in Firefox 4+, Safari, and Chrome.
 */

b,
strong {
  font-weight: bold;
}

/**
 * Address styling not present in Safari and Chrome.
 */

dfn {
  font-style: italic;
}

/**
 * Address variable `h1` font-size and margin within `section` and `article`
 * contexts in Firefox 4+, Safari, and Chrome.
 */

h1 {
  font-size: 2em;
  margin: 0.67em 0;
}

/**
 * Address styling not present in IE 8/9.
 */

mark {
  background: #ff0;
  color: #000;
}

/**
 * Address inconsistent and variable font size in all browsers.
 */

small {
  font-size: 80%;
}

/**
 * Prevent `sub` and `sup` affecting `line-height` in all browsers.
 */

sub,
sup {
  font-size: 75%;
  line-height: 0;
  position: relative;
  vertical-align: baseline;
}

sup {
  top: -0.5em;
}

sub {
  bottom: -0.25em;
}

/* Embedded content
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove border when inside `a` element in IE 8/9/10.
 */

img {
  border: 0;
}

/**
 * Correct overflow not hidden in IE 9/10/11.
 */

svg:not(:root) {
  overflow: hidden;
}

/* Grouping content
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Address margin not present in IE 8/9 and Safari.
 */

figure {
  margin: 1em 40px;
}

/**
 * Address differences between Firefox and other browsers.
 */

hr {
  -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
  box-sizing: content-box;
  height: 0;
}

/**
 * Contain overflow in all browsers.
 */

pre {
  overflow: auto;
}

/**
 * Address odd `em`-unit font size rendering in all browsers.
 */

code,
kbd,
pre,
samp {
  font-family: monospace, monospace;
  font-size: 1em;
}

/* Forms
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Known limitation: by default, Chrome and Safari on OS X allow very limited
 * styling of `select`, unless a `border` property is set.
 */

/**
 * 1. Correct color not being inherited.
 *    Known issue: affects color of disabled elements.
 * 2. Correct font properties not being inherited.
 * 3. Address margins set differently in Firefox 4+, Safari, and Chrome.
 */

button,
input,
optgroup,
select,
textarea {
  color: inherit; /* 1 */
  font: inherit; /* 2 */
  margin: 0; /* 3 */
}

/**
 * Address `overflow` set to `hidden` in IE 8/9/10/11.
 */

button {
  overflow: visible;
}

/**
 * Address inconsistent `text-transform` inheritance for `button` and `select`.
 * All other form control elements do not inherit `text-transform` values.
 * Correct `button` style inheritance in Firefox, IE 8/9/10/11, and Opera.
 * Correct `select` style inheritance in Firefox.
 */

button,
select {
  text-transform: none;
}

/**
 * 1. Avoid the WebKit bug in Android 4.0.* where (2) destroys native `audio`
 *    and `video` controls.
 * 2. Correct inability to style clickable `input` types in iOS.
 * 3. Improve usability and consistency of cursor style between image-type
 *    `input` and others.
 */

button,
html input[type="button"], /* 1 */
input[type="reset"],
input[type="submit"] {
  -webkit-appearance: button; /* 2 */
  cursor: pointer; /* 3 */
}

/**
 * Re-set default cursor for disabled elements.
 */

button[disabled],
html input[disabled] {
  cursor: default;
}

/**
 * Remove inner padding and border in Firefox 4+.
 */

button::-moz-focus-inner,
input::-moz-focus-inner {
  border: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

/**
 * Address Firefox 4+ setting `line-height` on `input` using `!important` in
 * the UA stylesheet.
 */

input {
  line-height: normal;
}

/**
 * It's recommended that you don't attempt to style these elements.
 * Firefox's implementation doesn't respect box-sizing, padding, or width.
 *
 * 1. Address box sizing set to `content-box` in IE 8/9/10.
 * 2. Remove excess padding in IE 8/9/10.
 */

input[type="checkbox"],
input[type="radio"] {
  box-sizing: border-box; /* 1 */
  padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Fix the cursor style for Chrome's increment/decrement buttons. For certain
 * `font-size` values of the `input`, it causes the cursor style of the
 * decrement button to change from `default` to `text`.
 */

input[type="number"]::-webkit-inner-spin-button,
input[type="number"]::-webkit-outer-spin-button {
  height: auto;
}

/**
 * 1. Address `appearance` set to `searchfield` in Safari and Chrome.
 * 2. Address `box-sizing` set to `border-box` in Safari and Chrome
 *    (include `-moz` to future-proof).
 */

input[type="search"] {
  -webkit-appearance: textfield; /* 1 */
  -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
  -webkit-box-sizing: content-box; /* 2 */
  box-sizing: content-box;
}

/**
 * Remove inner padding and search cancel button in Safari and Chrome on OS X.
 * Safari (but not Chrome) clips the cancel button when the search input has
 * padding (and `textfield` appearance).
 */

input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-cancel-button,
input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration {
  -webkit-appearance: none;
}

/**
 * Define consistent border, margin, and padding.
 */

fieldset {
  border: 1px solid #c0c0c0;
  margin: 0 2px;
  padding: 0.35em 0.625em 0.75em;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct `color` not being inherited in IE 8/9/10/11.
 * 2. Remove padding so people aren't caught out if they zero out fieldsets.
 */

legend {
  border: 0; /* 1 */
  padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Remove default vertical scrollbar in IE 8/9/10/11.
 */

textarea {
  overflow: auto;
}

/**
 * Don't inherit the `font-weight` (applied by a rule above).
 * NOTE: the default cannot safely be changed in Chrome and Safari on OS X.
 */

optgroup {
  font-weight: bold;
}

/* Tables
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove most spacing between table cells.
 */

table {
  border-collapse: collapse;
  border-spacing: 0;
}

td,
th {
  padding: 0;
}
Download V 3.0.2

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